7-1: Telecommunications & Networking

A. Network Components

  1. Computer
  2. Network Operating System - routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources
  3. Dedicated Server - performs important network functions
  4. Devices/Hubs - connect network components
  5. Network Interface Cards (NIC)
  6. Switches - More intelligence than a hub and can filter and forward data
  7. Router - network devices that connect two or more networks

B. Networking Technologies

  1. Client/Server Computing
    • a distributed computing model in which some processing power is located within small client computers under user control
    • internet is largest implementation
  2. Packet Switching
    • slicing digital messages into packets and sending them along different communications paths as they become available
    • replaced circuit switching
    • makes more efficient use of communications capacity of a network
  3. TCP/IP and Connectivity
    • Protocols - Common set of rules for different network components to follow
    • developed in early 1970's to help scientists transfer data
    • Reference Model
      1. Application Layer - Enables client apps to access the other layers and defines the protocols that apps use to exchange data.
        • Example - HTTP
      2. Transport Layer - Responsible for providing the app layer with communications and packet services
        • Includes TCP and other protocols
      3. Internet Layer - Responsible for addressing, routing, packaging data packets
        • Includes Internet Protocol
      4. Network Interface Layer - Responsible for placing packets on and receiving packets from the network medium.


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